2022 Children's rights/best interests Climate activists and human rights defenders Domestic court Mexico Right to a healthy environment Right to health Right to water Standing/admissibility

Youth v. Government of Mexico


On 5 December 2019, the plaintiffs filed for protection against several authorities and acts. Notably, they claimed that the President of the Republic, the Head of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, the Inter-Ministerial Commission on Climate Change, and other authorities had failed to issue regulations and policies regarding climate change which they were required to by national law. The plaintiffs claim that the failure to issue such regulations and policies had violated their constitutionally protected rights. They invoke, among other rights, the right to health protection, the right to a healthy environment, the right to water and the rights of children.

In a decision by the District Court in Administrative Matters in Mexico City, on 20 May 2022, the case was dismissed on the basis that the plaintiffs lacked a legitimate interest, as required to claim the alleged legislative omissions. The court argued that the plaintiffs could not prove a link between themselves and the environmental services of the allegedly violated ecosystem, as required by Mexican law.

The Collegiate Court in Administrative Matters in Mexico City, the appeals court, overruled this decision on 21 September 2022. It stated that the plaintiffs do have a legitimate interest because the legislative omissions affect the entire national territory and the applicants intend to counteract climate change and prevent its effects. Hence, a special link to ecosystems or the environment is not required because, as long as the plaintiffs reside in the national territory, such a link is established.

The case was forwarded to the Supreme Court of Mexico, where it is currently pending, to clarify the issue of the alleged human rights violations.

Stauts of Case:

The Supreme Court decision is pending

Suggested case citation:

Collegiate Court in Administrative Matters of Mexico City, Youth v. Government of Mexico, Judgment of 21 September 2022, R.A. 317/2022.

Case documents:

Date last updated:

29 November 2023

2014 Children and young people Children's rights/best interests Climate-induced displacement Domestic court New Zealand Sea-level rise

AD (Tuvalu) v. New Zealand

A family from Tuvalu appealed the decision to deport them from New Zealand, arguing that they would be at risk of suffering the adverse impacts of climate change — including the adverse effects of natural disasters — and socio-economic deprivation. Unlike in the domestic proceedings in the Teitiota case (domestically known as the AF (Kiribati) case), which made its way before the UN Human Rights Committee after leave to stay was refused, the applicants in this case received leave to remain in New Zealand on the basis of the exceptional circumstances of their case, which were understood to raise humanitarian concerns. The domestic court, the Auckland Immigration and Protection Tribunal, considered the family’s integration, the fact that they were “well-loved and integral members of a family”, and the best interests of their two children, aged three and five years old at the material time. Having regard to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Tribunal considered that the children’s young age made them more vulnerable to natural disasters and the adverse impact of climate change, and that it would be in their best interests to remain living with their parents in New Zealand. Concerning climate change and environmental degradation as a humanitarian issue, the Tribunal noted that it was “widely accepted that the impacts of climate change can adversely affect the enjoyment of basic human rights” and that “Tuvalu, as a country comprising low-lying topical islands (…) is particularly vulnerable to the adverse impacts of climate change. Environmental degradation caused or exacerbated by climate change was already a feature of life in Tuvalu”. Considering these factors on a cumulative basis, and finding that there was no adverse public interest in this case, the Tribunal found that “there are exceptional circumstances of a humanitarian nature, which would make it unjust or unduly harsh for the appellants to be removed from New Zealand.”

Type of proceedings:

Status of case:

Decision in this case:
The decision of the Immigration and Protection Tribunal in this case can be downloaded below.

Suggested citation:
New Zealand Immigration and Protection Tribunal at Auckland, AD (Tuvalu) [2014] NZIPT 501370-371, Decision of 4 June 2014.

Further information:
For more on this case and an analysis, see Jane McAdam, ‘The Emerging New Zealand Jurisprudence on Climate Change, Disasters and Displacement’, 3(1) Migration Studies (2015), 131–142.

Last updated:
17 August 2023.